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I completed my BSc Physiotherapy qualification at the University of Cape Town in 2006 and after a few years of gaining clinical work experience, began full-time study towards my PhD in 2014. 


My thesis investigates how intrinsic factors, performance and kinematics play a role in the optimisation of cycling biomechanics. The thesis investigates the validity of different bike fitting measurement tools, how individual factors, such as flexibility, can play a role in preferred bicycle configuration, and how the body position, muscle activity and saddle pressure mapping adjusts to increasing cycling intensities. The outcomes of the thesis demonstrated that flexibility and specific anthropometrics determine the cycling position as well as enhancing performance. Full body kinematics, muscle activity and saddle pressure indexes are dependent on workload. Lastly, bike fitting measurement methods were shown to have high reliability, but measures of static and dynamic kinematics are not interchangeable. It is therefore important to consider cycling intensity when performing a bike fit in order to optimise the cyclist’s position, muscle activity and saddle comfort. These findings are useful in the clinical application of cycling biomechanics.


W. Holliday, J. Fisher, R. Theo and J. Swart (2017)

Static versus dynamic kinematics in cyclists: A comparison of goniometer, inclinometer and 3D

motion capture.

European Journal Sport Science, 17(9)

W. Holliday, J. Fisher and J. Swart (2019)

The effects of relative cycling intensity on saddle pressure indexes.

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 22(10)

W. Holliday, J. Fisher, R. Theo and J. Swart (2019).

Cycling: Joint kinematics and muscle activity during differing intensities.

Sports Biomechanics. (published online September 2019)

J. Swart and W. Holliday (2019).

Cycling biomechanics optimisation-the (R)evolution of bicycle fitting.

International Federation of Sports medicine. 18(12)

W.Holliday and J.Swart (2020).

Performance variables associated with bicycle configuration and flexibility.

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 24(3)

W.Holliday and J Swart (2021).

Anthropometrics, flexibility and training history as determinants for bicycle configuration.

Sports Medicine and Health Sciences (online March 2021)

Reece McDonald, Wendy Holliday, Jeroen Swart (2021)

Muscle recruitment patterns and saddle pressures indexes with alterations in

effective seat tube angle

Sports Medicine and Health Science (online October 2021)

Wendy Holliday and Jeroen Swart (2021)

A Dynamic Approach to Cycling Biomechanics

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America (online 2021)

D. Kotler, S Rice, N Katz, N Gomes, W Holliday, K Zunti, J Moore (2023)

Training and Injury Considerations in Female-Identifying Cyclists

Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine (online 2023)

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